dek̂m̥, dek̂m̥-t, dek̂u- (*du̯e-k̂m̥-t)

    dek̂m̥, dek̂m̥-t, dek̂u- (*du̯e-k̂m̥-t)
    English meaning: ten
    Deutsche Übersetzung: “zehn”
    Note: Root dekm̂ ̥, dekm̂ -̥ t , dekû - (*due̯ -km̂ -̥ t): “ten” is an extended Root duō̯ (u) (*due̯ i-): “two”. The subsequent roots *u̯ī-k̂m̥t-ī : “twenty” and k̂m̥tóm “hundred” are mutated forms of the root *du̯e-k̂m̥-t : “ten”. They both reflect the common Illyr.- balt d- > zero phonetic mutatIon.
    Material: O.Ind. dáśa, Av. dasa; Arm. tasn (after Meillet Esquisse 42 from *dek̂-, as Russ. (tri)dcatь “30” from (tri-)dьseti), Gk. δέκα, Lat. decem (dēnī “per ten” from *dek-noi; PN Decius = Osc. Dekis, gen. Dekkieis), Osc. deketasiúí, nom. pl. degetasiús “ manager of the tithes “ (*deken-tüsio-), Umbr. desen-(duf) “ twelve “, O.Ir. deich, Welsh deg, Corn. Bret. dek, Goth. taíhun (-n as in sibun, niun), O.N. tiu, O.E. tien, tyn, O.S. tehan, O.H.G. zehan (a probably from den compounds, Brugmann II 2, 18), Toch. A śäk, B śak; finn. deksan “10” is after Jokl Pr. ling. Baudouin de Courtenay 104 borrows from IE). In the substantive number dekm̂ -̥ t(i), lit. “decade”, go back: O.Ind. daśat-, daśati- f. “decade”, Alb. djetë, Gk. δεκάς, -άδος (to α s. Schwyzer Gk. I 498, 597), Goth. táihun-tēhund “hundred” (actually “ten decades “), O.N. tiund f. ds., aPruss. dessīmpts “ten”, Lith. dẽšimt, old dẽšimtis, Ltv. old desimt, metath. desmit, old desmits (compare desmite m. f. “ ten “); O.C.S. desętь (conservative stem in -t, Meillet Slave comm.2 428); dek̂u- probably in Lat. decuria “ a body of ten men; a class, division, esp. of jurors; a party, club” (out of it borrows Ger. Decher ũ.. “ten pieces”; late Lat. *teguria is assumed through Swiss Ziger “ ten pounds of milk”; probably identical with M.H.G. ziger “curd”) = Umbr. dequrier, tekuries “ decuries, feast of decuries “; compare Osc.-Umbr. dekvia- in Osc. (vía) Dekkviarim “( a way) appropriate to a decury “, Umbr. tekvias “a way to a decury”; in addition probably Gmc. *tigu- “decade” in Goth. fidwor-tigjus “40”, O.Ice. fjōrertiger, O.E. fēower-tig, O.H.G. fior-zug ds. Older explanations by WH. I 327 f. and Feist 150. see also under under centuria under Kluge11 under Decher. Maybe Alb. tek “odd number” Changing through ablaut (d)k̂m̥t- (Dual), (d)k̂ō̆mt- (Plur.) in figures of ten (only formations up to 50 are provable as IE), e.g. O.Ind. triṃśát “30”, Av. ϑrisąs , Arm. ere-sun, Gk. τριά̄κοντα (from *-κωντα; further details by Schwyzer Gk. I 592), Lat. tri-gintü (with unexplained g), gallo-Lat. abl. pl. TRICONTIS, O.Ir. trīcho (with ī after trī “3”), Bret. tregont (*tri-k̂omt-es), O.Welsh trimuceint (in the ending after uceint “20”); s. also under u̯ī̆-k̂m̥tī̆ “20”. ordinals dekê mo-s and dekm̂ -̥ to-s: dek̂emo-s in O.Ind. daśamá-ḥ, Av. dasǝma-, Osset. däsäm; Lat. decimus, therefrom decumünus “ of the tenth.(1) relating to the provincial tax of a tenth; m. as subst. the farmer of such a tax. (2) belonging to the tenth legion; m. pl. as subst. its members. (3) belonging to the tenth cohort “, later “considerable “, Osc. Dekm-anniúís “*Decumaniis”, compare also EN Decumius, out of it entl. etr. tecumnal, latinized back Decumenus; Gaul. decametos, O.Ir. dechmad, M.Welsh decvet, Corn. degves. dekm̂ -̥ to-s in Gk. δέκατος (see also Schwyzer Gk. I 595); Goth. taíhunda, O.N. tīunda, O.H.G. zehanto, zehendo, O.E. teogeða; aPruss. dessīmts, Lith. dešim̃ tas, Ltv. desmitais, older desimtaiš; O.C.S. desętь; Toch. A śkänt, B śkante, śkañce (linguistic singles Arm. tasn-erord, Alb. i-dhjetë);
    Note: Anatolian languages show a pattern similar to Alb. So Lycian aitãta (*ok̂tō(u)ta) “eight” : Alb. teta “eight”; Lycian ñuñtãta “nine” : Alb. nanda “nine”. Therefore Alb. shtata ‘seven” derived from a truncated *sa(p)tata ‘seven” later O.Ind. saptáthaḥ, Av. haptaϑa-, O.S. sivotho, O.E. seofoða , Lith. septiñtas; also O.Ind. saptatí-, Av. haptüiti- 70; in Alb. -ta, -të are attribute endings that were solidified in Anatolian and Indic cognates. The attribute ta (used in the genitive and adjectives) is unique to Alb. language alone. Therefore Alb. teta “eight” is a zero grade of Lycian aitãta (*ok̂tō(u)ta) “eight”. It was initially an ordinal number used as an attribute [compare Lat. octuügintü “80”]. Alb.Tosk nanta, Gheg nanda “ nine “ derived from Lycian ñuñtãta “nine”. Alb. gjashta (sek̂s-ta) ‘six” [common Alb. s- > gj- phonetic mutation] : O.Ind. ṣáṭ ‘six”, ṣaṣṭhá- ‘sixth” was initially an ordinal number. Hence Alb. die-ta “ten” derived from a Proto-Romance cognate *die + common Alb. -ta suffix used in attribute nouns; similarly in: Portuguese dez, Galician dez, Spanish diez, Ladino dies, Asturian diez, Aragonese diez, Auvergnat dié, Limosin die, Rumantsch Grischun diesch, Sursilvan diesch, Vallader desch, Ladin díesc, Italian dieci, Venetian diese etc. Here k̂m̥tóm “hundred” from *(d)km̥tóm “(ten) dekades”: O.Ind. śatám, Av. satǝm (out of it finn. sata, krimGoth. sada); Gk. ἑκατόν, ark. ἑκοτόν (from dissimil. *sém k̂m̥tom “a hundred”? compare Schwyzer Gk. I 592 f.), abbreviated *κατον in *τετρά-κατον etc (in τετρακάτιοι τετρακόσιοι, 400”, “ four hundred “);
    Note: Gk. ἑκατόν (*hekaton) < *(d)km̥tóm “(ten) dekades” is crucial to crucial for tracing the cause of old laryngeal ḫ appearance in IE. Hence laryngeals were created after the loss of initlal d- in IE. Gk. and Anatolian tongues reflect the common Illyr.- balt d- > zero phonetic mutatIon. Lat. centum (in addition ducentum, ducentī “200”, compare O.Ind. dvi-śatam from *du̯ik̂mtóm; trecentī “300”, quadringentī “400”, etc; centēsimus “the hundredth” after vīcēsimus, trīcēsimus from*u̯ei-, *trī-k̂m̥t-temo-s); O.Ir. cēt, Welsh cant, Bret. kant, Corn. cans; Goth. O.S. O.E. hund, O.H.G. hund “100” (in compounds from 200), but O.N. hund-rað (to Goth. raÞian “count”) “ 120 pieces (10 dozens) “ (“120”), out of it O.E. hundred; M.H.G. Ger. hundert from O.S. hunderod; Lith. šim̃ tas, Ltv. sìmts ; O.C.S. etc sъto is barely Iran. Lw. (Meillet Slave commun.2 63); Toch. A känt, B känte . Alb.Gheg dũ, Tosc di “two” hence Alb. (*hũnt) Alb. një-qind “one- hundred” [common Alb. ũ > i phonetic mutation], hence Alb. displays centum characteristics while Rom. sutů “a hundred” displays the satem nature of Rom. In addition a r-derivative in Lat. centuria f. “ a division of 100; a company of soldiers; a century, a part of the Roman people, as divided by Servius Tullius “ (as decuria), O.N. hundari, O.H.G. huntari n. “a division of 100, administrative district”, O.Bulg. sъtorica ds., Lith. šimterió pas “characterized by a hundred”, šimté r-gis “ hundred-year-old “.
    References: WP. I 785 f., WH. I 200 f., 327 ff., 859, Feist 150, 471 f., Trautmann 53, 305.

Proto-Indo-European etymological dictionary. 2015.

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